Paint Chemicals Industry Newsletters Vol. 4

Paint Chemicals Industry Newsletters Vol. 4

Pigmet Volume Concentration (PVC)

Coating properties are governed by, among others, the degree of loading of the system with solid particles. Some coatings contain multiple solid particles, while others, like clearcoats, are free of solid particles. The particle loading of a coating is quantified by its Pigment Volume Concentration (PVC).

The PVC of a system is the volume percentage of solid particles in the system after film formation when all volatile ingredients (water and solvents) have evaporated. A system of high PVC has a high degree of particle loading, and a system of low PVC contains a low volume percentage of solid particles.

PVC is a property of a system after film formation. It implies that the PVC is estimated by excluding the volatile components: water and solvents. The volume of the non- volatile components should be used in the calculation. The weights must be converted into volumes by using the density of each of the components.

For ease of calculation, we exclude the additives. The total volume of solid particles in 100 grams of paint can be calculated by dividing the weight of TiO2 by its density.

This gives: Vp = 6.00 cm3. The paint does not contain filler, so: Vf = 0.

Now we look at the binder consisting of alkyd resin dissolved in D40. The weight of the non-volatile part of the binder is 30.05 grams. From the binder supplier, we know that the density of the pure alkyd resin is 1.10 g/cm3. So, the volume of the non-volatile part of the binder is Vb = 27.32 cm3.

Using our definition, it follows that the PVC of this paint is 18.0%. This value tells us that 82 volume % of the coating, the system after film formation, consists of resin a nd the pigment particles account for 18 volume %. Thus, it is a high gloss paint.

The Density of Resins:

Often, only the density of the binder as supplied, and not of the pure resin, is given in the technical data sheet (TDS). An estimate of the density of the pure resin, the non-volatile part of the binder as supplied, can be made by calculation.


Fortune Azaka - Procurement Manager, Paint & Coating Nigeria Limited

Q. Please tell us about yourself and your company?

Ans. My name is Fortune Azaka, and I work with Paint & Coatings Nigeria Limited. I am the Procurement Manager, and I have been with Paint and Coatings for over 11 Years. PCMN commenced business in Nigeria in 2001 in Port Harcourt as the sole distributor of the oil and gas industry-leading brand, International Paints Protective Coatings and Marine Coatings. PCMN is not merely a supplier of Paints & Coating systems; we are a partner committed to working with you to understand your needs and figure out a solution.  

Q. What product/products do you buy from us?

Ans. The products we buy from Cormart are resins, rheology modifiers, preservatives, and paste. We also buy Calcium Carbonate rarely for our production. The preservatives preserve the paints, the paste serves as a colourant, and the Calcium Carbonate is an extender (it gives it weight).

Q. How comfortable are you with Cormart as a brand?

Ans. I am very comfortable with the service, especially the customer service. The sales representative is always available to solve whatever technical problem we have.

Q. What were the top three qualities you looked out for in Cormart as your supplier?

Ans. Cormart possesses many good qualities. The top two qualities that make them stand out are their product quality and competitive prices.

Q. Any further comment?

Ans. Yes. I would implore Cormart to increase the discount they give to customers. I would also add that Cormart should increase its product range.


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October 18, 2021

Download Optimizing Microbial Protection in Paints Paint formulations contain standard industrial biocides...

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Paint Chemicals Industry Newsletters Vol. 3

February 21, 2022

Download FOAMING CONTROL IN PAINTS AND COATINGS Foam means a two-phase stable...

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Paint Chemicals Industry Newsletters Vol. 4

October 11, 2022

Pigmet Volume Concentration (PVC) Coating properties are governed by, among others, the...

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Product Spotlight: Kimix

Titanium Dioxide

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Kimix Titanium Dioxide covers both Rutile and Anatase types. After years of development, it enjoys a good reputation in the market worldwide for its consistent quality, good whiteness, strong hiding and reducing power. It is used widely in coatings, paints, masterbatches, plastics, inks, paper, and rubber, along with others.

Type Surface Treatment Tio2 Content % Residue (45um) % Moisture (105) % PH Value Rutile Content Colour L Colour a Colour b Application


Si, Al

92 mins
0.05 max
0.8 max
6.0 - 8.5
97 min
97 min
o.4 max
2.4 max
Interior & exterior coatings, Paints, Powder coatings, Printing ink, Papers, Plastic
Zr, Al
93 min
0.05 max
0.8 max
98 min
98 min
0.4 max
2.4 max
Interior & exterior coatings, Emulsion Paints, Powder coatings, Printing ink, Papers, Rubber Masterbatch
Zr, Al
0.3 max
0.8 max
98 min
98 min
0.4 max
2.4 max
Interior & exterior coatings, Emulsion Paints, Pow- der coatings, Printing ink, Papers, Rubber Masterbatch
98 min
0.1 max
0.8 max
98 min
interior coatings, paper, plastics, rubber, enamel leather, artificial fibre

Technical Advice & Tips

Solutions Propelling Antimicrobial Coatings into the Future

By making improvements to the coating process, businesses can reduce the likelihood of coating failures and defects, such as:

Chalking: Development of a dusty material on the coating’s surface.

Erosion: Reduction or elimination of the coating when exposed to environmental elements.

Blistering: Forming of small to large bubbles beneath the surface of or within the coating.

Orange Peeling: Presence of convex or concave surface texture on the coating surface.

Pin- holing: presence of  small holes through the coating, exposing the surface of the substrate.

Undercutting: Rupturing of the coating due to the presence of corrosive byproducts from the substrate.

Some of the process improvements that directly address the primary causes of these (and other) coating failures include:

Improving surface preparation: Surface preparation helps achieve a strong bond between the coating and the substrate. The removal of contaminants facilitates proper bonding by eliminating compounds that might contribute to coverage failures, improper wetting, blistering, and other adhesion issues. Operators should understand the type of surface contaminants likely to be present in their process and tailor their pre- cleaning protocols to address these contaminants.

Implementing Process and Equipment Audits: Any other equipment, paint guns, hoses, spray tips, and other coating equipment wear down over time. A standard process for auditing the condition of your paint line can go a long way in preventing issues related to improper coverage or contamination during application.

Encouraging Operator Feedback: Involved in applying coatings can provide valuable feedback concerning any challenge related to coating application or curing. Using this feedback, manufacturers can adjust coating formulas and application procedures to suit their production processes.

Using the Proper Formulation: Formulation should remain flexible. As facilities change equipment, processes, and materials, coating formulations must adapt to these changes to continue to perform as expected. The coating supplier should work with organizations to custom formulate coatings as their requirements evolve.

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