Agric Chemicals Industry Newsletters Vol. 2

Agric Chemicals Industry Newsletters Vol. 2

Strategies to Control Salmonella in Poultry - Series 1

Salmonella Control in the Production Phase (Pre-Harvest)

A high level of biosecurity (cleaning and disinfection) in poultry and food processing plants is important to avoid disease outbreaks, the possible slaughter of the total flock, and related profit losses.

Poultry is considered one of the most important Salmonella reservoirs, it has been a public health concern over the past 100 years and continues to be a major foodborne pathogen affecting humans.

Strategies to prevent transmission of Salmonella to humans should focus on the whole production chain of broiler meat and the subsequent storage and handling of meat – from Farm to Fork.

Introduction of Salmonella to the Broiler Farm

  • Vehicles
  • People
  • Clothing
  • Footwear
  • Equipment
  • Water
  • Feed
  • Feathers
  • The carcass of dead birds
  • Litter
  • Insects
  • Rodents

Salmonella Control in the Production Phase (Pre-Harvest)

General hygienic and biosecurity measures should be part of the overall management plan of poultry producing integrators and companies. These measures are of utmost importance to control infections and all other measures lose their efficacy when the overall biosecurity plan is not functioning.

  • Introducing Salmonella-free birds is the most important starting point to prevent infections
  • Incoming birds should be of good health status
  • Restricted access is an important issue
  • Shower and changing room facilities for workers and visitors
  • Limit the entry of non-essential visitors

Only essential visitors, wearing protective clothing (coveralls, gloves, mask, etc.) and disinfected boots should be allowed on-farm.

Simple measures such as foot baths, wheel baths, hand hygiene, and minimizing movement between different animal houses need to be implemented properly.

Buildings, surfaces, fans, cooling pads, and equipment should be cleaned and disinfected properly.

Establish a clear zone, free from vegetation, around the building to discourage rodent and insect traffic in the building.

In an overall management plan, cleaning and disinfection after each production cycle must be routinely carried out.



Aluko Benjamin - Procurement manager , Obasanjo Holdings Limited

Q. Please tell us about yourself and your organization?

Ans. I am the procurement manager for the Ibadan Hatchery unit of the Obasanjo Farms. We have pioneered agriculture systems in Nigeria that have developed and grown the industry.

Q. Please tell us about your company’s business relationship with Cormart?

Ans. We have been in business with Cormart for more than 6 years. It’s always been a seamless relationship, smooth and friendly.

Q. What’s the most important aspect of your procurement process? Is it timescales or budget?

Ans. The most important aspect of my procurement process is budgeting. Though, I am always prepared for timescales in an event of unplanned circumstances.

Q. Please describe the sources you rely on to maintain and expand your knowledge of relevant marketplaces?

Ans. I rely mostly on information from major suppliers, both local and international. Moreover, I have a strong relationship with the user department to know much about the potency and specifications of the products.

Q. During product sourcing, what do you look out for?

Ans. I look out for specifications, ingredients, manufacturer appraisal, and logistics.

Q. What can you tell us about the Cormart Products you use?

Ans. The products are fantastic, pocket friendly without compromising the quality of the products. We majorly purchase VinkoKill and Vinkoquat.

Q. Are there other business areas you’d like to partner with Cormart?

Ans. Yes of course, especially in the area of your formaldehyde.

Q.How likely would you recommend our products to others?

Ans. That’s something I have been doing and will continue to do.




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Product Spotlight: Viru Supa

Broad Spectrum Disinfectant

Viru Supa causes extensive damage to the protective mechanisms of microbial cells, causing irreversible damage and rapid kill of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. It utilizes oxidative chemistry to which no known organism has demonstrated resistance.


  • It reduces the buildup of scale and biofilm, maintaining pipe diameter, water flow, and volume.
  • It has increased surfactant to aid pathogen penetration and cleaning action
  • It is safe to use in the presence of livestock and farm workers during aerial disinfection
  • Useful in continuous and terminal disinfection and emergency disease control


Directions for use:

  • Hard surface disinfection 1:200 (5g/L)
  • Ideal for all areas with high level microbial and organic contamination
  • Cleaning and disinfection of equipment 1:200 (5g/L)
  • Treatment of livestock drinking water systems 1:100 (10g/L)
  • Continuous treatment of drinking water for poultry and livestock 1:2000 (500g/1000L) in livestock housing
  • For high organic loads 1:100 (10g/L)
  • Cold fogging 1:100 (10g/L)
  • Thermal fogging 1:25 (40g/L)


Technical Advice & Tips

Vaccination Techniques

Spray Vaccination

  • Diseases covered: IB, NCD, TRT
  • Different spray techniques: Automatic, Knapsack (D/O), Coarse (Knapsack, Older birds), Aerosol (fine mist-booster)
  • Droplet size is very important
  • Do not place crates under or near a heat source (evaporation)
  • Hand sprayers not recommended (pressure not regulated)

Procedure for priming

  • for 1000 birds, 1000d of the vaccine in 250ml of water at 15-20°C
  • Follow all water vaccination procedures: distilled water, open underwater, rinse 3x
  • Place vaccine solution in a knapsack sprayer
  • Adjust knapsack to give coarse spray (test against a dark background)
  • · Hold nozzle 40cm above chicks. Dampen but don’t wet chicks
  • Leave chicks to dry for 20-30mins
  • Use equipment only for the vaccination

Water Vaccination

  • Used to vaccinate against IB, NCD, AE, IBD
  • Water quality should be free from chloride/heavy metals, and bacterial contamination
  • Equipment-free of water, birds thirsty. Average thirsting duration of 2-3hrs for vaccine uptake in 2-2.5hours
  • Troughs clean and free of disinfectant
  • Water quantity: rule of thumb- for every 1000 birds, dissolve 1000 d of the vaccine in water equivalent to the age of birds e.g. 10,000 birds at 25 DOA 10×25=250 litres
  • Birds older than 40 days: max 40 litres per 1000 birds
  • Add stabiliser (skimmed milk 2g/l) if a dechlorinating agent is not used